近日,《中国电力报》记者就煤电高质量发展的相关问题采访了清华大学能源与动力工程系教授毛健雄,围绕当前煤电的定位、煤电的技术路线等进行了欢乐彩和讨论。
“煤电今天高质量发展的重点应该放在对所有现役机组进行提质升级改造。
毛健雄: 欢乐彩认为,创新是推动中国煤电高质量发展的关键,中国煤电能够走到今天这一步,成为世界容量最大、效率最高和最清洁的煤电容量,靠的是党和国家政策的推动和中国广大煤电人几十年的努力奋斗和不断创新发展的结果。
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欢乐彩

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毛健雄: 把牢煤电高质量发展定力

balaomeidiangaozhiliangfazhandingli

——duihuaqinghuadaxuenengyuanyudongligongchengxijiaoshoumaojianxiong

《zhongguodianlibao》jizhe  fengyijun

  cengjingzaihuanlecaiguogongyefazhanshishangliuxianongmozhongcaidemeidian,rujinyijingxingzouzaigaozhiliangfazhandexinzhengchengshang。zaidangqiannengyuangemingxiangzongshentuijindexinxingshixia,ruhebaochihefahuihaochuantongmeidianzheiyi“dianliyacangshi”dedoudigongneng,ruhetongchouxiediaomeidianxinzengrongliang、tuiyirongliangheyanshourongliangdeguanxi,ruhewenzhuqingjiemeidianzainengyuanqingjiefazhandedagejuzhongdefazhandingli,zheishidangqianbaizaimeidianxingyedezhongdaketi、zhongdadajuan。

  jinri,《zhongguodianlibao》jizhejiumeidiangaozhiliangfazhandexiangguanwenticaifangleqinghuadaxuenengyuanyudongligongchengxijiaoshoumaojianxiong,weiraodangqianmeidiandedingwei、meidiandejishuluxiandengjinxinglehuanlecaihetaolun。

  “meidianjintiangaozhiliangfazhandezhongdianyinggaifangzaiduisuoyouxianyijizujinxingtizhishengjigaizao。”zaimaojianxiongkanlai,gezhongleixingdejizuyinggaitongchoujiangu,tuchuzhongdian。

  “gaoxiaohua、qingjiehuayujianlianghua”bingjuyingshimeitanzhanlvefangxiang

  《中国电力报》: 请问在应对气候变化和能源低碳发展的形势下,您对煤炭在现今中国能源中的地位有什么看法?

  毛健雄: 为了应对气候变化的挑战,中国能源结构将加快升级,能源的低碳和清洁化水平将会显著提高,作为高碳燃料的煤炭被替代程度将逐步加深,这是中国也是世界能源发展的必然趋势。预计,石油和天然气将会分别在2030-2035年和2040年后达到峰值。非化石能源在2050年前将会取代煤炭成为第一大能源品种。但是,中国能源资源的禀赋决定了煤炭为主的能源结构,在至少未来30年的一个相当长的时期内,煤炭作为欢乐彩国最可靠、最安全和最经济的能源,虽然比重在不断下降,但是“煤为基础,煤电为主,油气进口”这一欢乐彩国能源的基本格局在短时期内还无法改变。2018年,欢乐彩国原煤产量36.8亿吨,消费量39亿吨,分别占一次能源生产和消费的69.6%和59%。2019年10月11日,国家能源委员会第四次全体会议指出,根据欢乐彩国以煤为主的能源资源禀赋,预计到2030年,在多元发展的能源供给体系中,虽然欢乐彩国煤炭的消费量比重会有所下降,但仍然会占一次能源总消费量的55%左右。因此,在欢乐彩国能源发展战略中对煤炭的定位应该是“以煤为主,绿色用煤”。根据对煤炭的这一战略定位,即使为了应对“气候变化”,激进的“去煤化”道路是走不通的,煤炭产业的未来发展方向,应该是走高效和清洁化的利用道路。“高效化、清洁化与减量化”应该是煤炭及相关产业同时并举的战略方向。

  《中国电力报》: 请您结合中国燃煤火电的现状谈谈未来的发展还有多大的空间?

  毛健雄: 中国现在是世界上最大的煤炭生产和消费国,2018年煤炭总产量为36.8亿吨,占全球总产量的45.43%。基于中国“以煤为主”的能源结构和经济高速发展的国情,推动了中国煤电的快速发展。就全球的燃煤火电情况,2018年,全球燃煤火电的总装机容量为15.3亿千瓦,仍然是全球各种发电电源中最大的板块,其中,中国煤电的装机容量超过10亿千瓦,占全球燃煤发电机组总装机容量的66%。从总装机容量和总发电量看,2018年,中国电力的总装机容量达到19亿千瓦, 总发电量为69947亿千瓦时,均为世界第一。现在美国的总装机容量只有中国的65%,中国比印度的总装机容量大5倍。但是,如果考虑到人均装机容量和人均发电量,现在中国人均装机容量为1.36千瓦/人,人均发电量为4710千瓦时/人,虽然有了很大的发展,但是仍落后于几乎所有的发达国家,甚至不如韩国。人均装机容量和人均发电量可谓衡量一个国家的经济发达程度和人民生活水平的重要标志之一,也是是否达到了发达国家水平的主要标志之一。由于现在欢乐彩国的人均水平还较低, 仍然是发展中国家,这说明中国为实现在“第二个100年”达到中等发达国家水平的战略目标,今后还需要发展更多的电力。因此,预计中国电力包括煤电的装机容量和发电量还会有较大的发展空间。根据国际能源署的预测,全球今后计划要欢乐彩的各种电源容量中,水电和气电将有大幅度增加,煤电发展虽然增速放缓,但仍然要再建27-28亿千瓦,中国新建煤电将仍会有3-4亿千瓦的容量空间。

  发挥好煤电“压舱石”的兜底作用

  《中国电力报》: 为了应对气候变化,中国正在大力发展可再生能源电力,您认为中国煤电在中国电力发展中的定位和发展要求应该是怎样的?

  毛健雄: 自从中国对煤电实行“上大压小”政策以来,淘汰了近1亿千瓦的落后低效小机组,大力发展了先进超临界和超超临界大机组,现在仅超超临界机组的总容量已超过1亿千瓦,成为世界第一。按照国家能源局的数据,2018年,中国的全国平均供电煤耗已下降至321克标煤/千瓦时。2014年开始实行煤电全面超低排放改造,到现在为止,中国已是世界上燃煤火电总容量最大、平均效率最高、污染物排放最低的国家。

  xianran,zaiyingduiqihoubianhuahenengyuanditanzhuanxingdedaxingshixia,ditandianyuan,tebieshikezaishengnengyuandianlijianghuijiasufazhan,meidiandefazhansuduheguimojianghuifanghuanhejianxiao。danshi,xianzaiyouxierenzhuzhang,youyumeitanshigaowuranhegaotannengyuan,yinermeidianyinggaijinkuaituichulishiwutai,renweijinhouzhongguobudanwanquanbuxuyaoxinzengjiameidianzhuangjirongliang,erqiejianyiyaojiangzhongguomeidiandefadianliangzai2050nianqianjiangweiling,yaoqiumeidianyinggai“huanxialai、jianxialai、tingxialai”。zheizhong“qumeidianhua”dezhuzhangfuhezhongguodeguoqinghenengyuandeshijima?zaizhongguonengyuanjiegouxianzairengranshi“yimeiweizhu”deqingkuangxia,meidianzuoweibaozhangzhongguodianlizuianquankekaogongyingde“yacangshi”,zhinengerqiebixuzaijiaozhangdeshiqineibaochifazhandingli。erqie,zuohaoweilaimeidian、kezaishengnengyuandianlihehediandenggezhongdianyuandianlifazhandepinghengshifenguanjian,juebunengyinweiyaofazhan“ditandianyuan”erguozao、guokuaigaosuoweide“qumeidianhua”erdaguimojianshaohetaotaimeidian。zhongguogezhongdianyuandepinghengheqitadianyuandediaojiebuchangxuqiu,juedinglemeidianjinhourengjiangzhangqifahuizhongyaozuoyong。weilenenggoubaozhenghexiaonakezaishengnengyuandianli,zhongguoxuyaojinyibufahuimeidianteshudegaobaozhengchulinenglihelinghuoxingdiaojiezuoyongnengli。yinci,zhongguomeidiandefazhan,yinggaitongchouxiediaomeidianxinzengrongliang、tuiyirongliangheyanshourongliangdeguanxi,zhenduigezhongbutongqingkuangdemeidianrongliang,caiqubutongdejishucuoshi,yishixianzhongguomeidiangaozhiliangfazhandemubiao。yujizaiyigexiangdangzhangdeshiqinei,zhongguorengxuzaidianlixitongzhongweichi13-14yiqianwademeidianzhuangjirongliang, yejiushizai2050nianqian,zhongguohaixuxinzengjiayue4yiqianwadexinmeidianjizudezhuangjirongliang,erjuebushiyejuebukenengcongcizhongguobuzaifazhanrenhexinzengmeidianrongliang。ciwai,zaidangqianxingshixia,meidiandegaozhiliangfazhan,shouxianyinggaishizhuazhuxianyijizu,yaozaijishushangdexianjinxinghejingjishangdekechixuxingjichushang,duixianyijizubaokuochaolinjiehechaochaolinjiejizu,tebieshiyalinjiejizu,jinyibujiakuaitixiaojianghaoyanshouhelinghuoxinggaizaodegaozhiliangfazhanbufa。

  guanyuzhongguomeidianjinhougaozhiliangfazhanduimeidiandejishuxingnengyaoqiu,2014nian,sanbuweifabude《meidianjienengjianpaishengjiyugaizaoxingdongjihua(2014-2020)》,yaoqiu“dao2020nian,xianyiranmeijizugaizaohoudenianpingjungongdianmeihaodiyu310ke/qianwashi(xiangdangyuedingfuheshi290-295ke/qianwashi), qizhongxianyi60wanqianwajiyishangdejizu(chukonglengjizuwai),gaizaohounianpingjungongdianmeihaodiyu300ke/qianwashi;guojianengyuanjujinnian9yuefabude《guanyuzhengxieshisanjiequanguoweiyuanhuidiercihuiyidi1919hao(gongjiaodianlei192hao)tiandafudehan》cheng: kejibuhuitongyouguanbumenzhengyanjiubushumianxiang2030niandemeitanqingjieliyongzhongdaxiangmu,lizhengdao2030nianzaimeitanqingjieranshaoyufadianfangmian,“shixianranmeifadianjingxiaolvtupo50%”、“ranmeifadianjizushixian20%-100%diaofeng”。ruguozheixieyaoqiumubiaodeyishixian,jianghuidadacujinzhongguomeidiandegaozhiliangfazhan。

  创新是推动煤电高质量发展的关键

  《中国电力报》: 您认为中国应当怎样实现煤电的高质量发展?

  毛健雄: 欢乐彩认为,创新是推动中国煤电高质量发展的关键,中国煤电能够走到今天这一步,成为世界容量最大、效率最高和最清洁的煤电容量,靠的是党和国家政策的推动和中国广大煤电人几十年的努力奋斗和不断创新发展的结果。其中,欢乐彩可以举上海申能公司的上海外高桥第三发电公司(简称外三)为例,因为欢乐彩和清华大学欢乐彩的老学长倪维斗院士及欢乐彩的老同学原能源部总工程师秦中一等一起,多年来曾经与外三合作来推动其创新发展经验的推广,多次去过外三调研考察,因此对外三比较熟悉,了解的情况也比较多。欢乐彩推动外三推广其创新技术的一个典型例子,是外三与华润电力的合作。2012年,华润电力在经过欢乐彩的介绍和推荐后,在当时的董事局主席周俊卿带领下,在对外三电厂及其创新技术进行了仔细的调研评估后,确认了外三的先进创新技术,于2013年10月在上海与外三(通过申能科技公司)签订了《技术合作框架协议》,签字那天欢乐彩和倪维斗及秦中一三人均有幸被邀请参加签字仪式以见证他们的合作。从那时以来的近6年时间,外三(申能科技)和华润电力一共开展了四个大项目的技术改造合作, 其中三项(华润铜山电厂2台100万千瓦超超机组改造、华润曹妃甸2台全新100万千瓦一次再热工程全套外三创新技术的应用、华润徐州电厂32万千瓦亚临界机组的升级提效和灵活性改造)已经完成, 第四项华润阜阳2台66万千瓦全高位布置二次再热机组工程已在设计阶段。因此,根据欢乐彩对外三厂本身的调查了解,特别是外三技术在华润电力的推广成功,使欢乐彩相信并一致认为,外三是中国煤电创新发展的突出代表,他们以拥有大量的创新技术,包括66项专利技术及诸多专有技术,实现了下面四个方面的突出成果:

  gaizaoxianyichaochaolinjiejizu, jinyibutishengqixingnenghejiangdimeihao。

  zi2008nianwaisandejizutouchanyilai,tamenjiangyuanshejigongdianmeihaowei291ke/qianwashide2tai100wanqianwachaochaolinjiejizutongguojishuchuangxinhegaizao,shinianpingjungongdianmeihaojiangdidao276ke/qianwashi,weidangshideshijiejilu,bingdadatishenglejizudegexiangxingneng。beiguojianengyuanjushoupaiweiquanguoweiyide“guojiameidianjienengjianpaishifanjidi”;beiguoji“power”zazhishouyu“dingjidianchang”zhengshu;zaiguojidianlidahuishangbeishouyu《peabody quanqiuqingjiemeilingdaozhejiang(zuigaoxiaolvjizuidi nox paifang)》;

  2014-2015nian,caiyongbufenwaisanjishugaizaodehuaruntongshandianchangde2tai100wanqianwanchaochaolinjiejizu,jiangdigongdianmeihao10keyishang,dadaonianjieyuebiaozhunmei10yuwandun,gaizaohoutouchanzhijinyijin5nian,qijieyuedebiaozhunmeiyida50wandunzuoyou,zheheyuanmeiyue70wandun。

  chuangxinjishuyongyuquanxinchaochaolinjiejizudesheji,shixianwaisanjishudeshengji。

  huaruncaofeidiandianchangerqi2tai100wanqianwanyicizairechaochaolinjiegongcheng,youshanghaiwaisan(shennengkeji)weigaixiangmutigongquantaode “waisanshengjiban” chuangxinjishu,shejigongdianmeihaowei263 kebiaomei/qianwashi,budanyouyuwaisanxianzaidemeihaozhibiao, erqieyouyu100 wanqianwachangguishejideercizairejizuzaiedingfuhexiadeshejigongdianmeihao267kebiaomei/qianwashidezhibiao。muqianguoneiyitouchandezuixianjinde100wanqianwaercizairemeidianjizujingxiaolvwei46%,caiyongwaisanshengjibanjishudecaofeidianerqi100wanqianwayicizairedeshejigongdianxiaolvwei46 .7%,erqitouzijinweiercizairede78%。shuomingcaiyongwaisanjienengjianpaichuangxinjishu,yicizairebudannenggoudadaoshenzhichaoguochangguishejideercizairedegongdianxiaolv,erqienengshidianchangdetouzidadaojigaodexingjiabi。

  tupochuantongercizairechaochaolinjiejizushejidezhiyuepingjing,chuangxingenggaoxiaodichengbenercizairesheji。

  zhenduichangguishejideercizairechaochaolinjiejizucunzaidewenti,tebieshiangguidezhangjulidazhijinggaowenzhengqiguandaodepingjingzhiyue,waisan(shennengkeji)chuangxinshejiledadasuoduangaowenzhengqiguandaodeqilunfadianjizu“gaodiwei”he“quangaowei“buzhi,dadatigaolexiaolv,jiangdilemeihaohechengben。duiyudarongliangdeercizairejizu,caiyong“shuangzhougaodiweibuzhi”jishu,xianzaiyongyuzhengzaihuanlecaizhongdeshennenganhuipingshandianchangerqi“135wanqianwaercizairechaochaolinjie”gongcheng,gaigongchengweiguojiashifanxiangmu, yujizai2020niantouchanfadian。youyugaijishukesuoduandabufengaowenzhengqiguandao,shipingshanerqijizudeshejigongdianmeihaodida 251 ke/qianwashi,yinerbeishirenshanghaishiweishujidehanzhengfuzonglizaikaochawaisanshimingmingwei“251 gongcheng” 。

  duiyuzhongdengrongliangdeercizairejizu,ruzhengzaishejizhongdehuarunanhuifuyangerqi66wanqianwaercizairechaochaolinjiegongcheng,zecaiyong“quangaoweibuzhi”jishu,gaijishushizaipingshanxiangmude“gaodiweibuzhi”jishujichushangde“shengjiban”——“danzhouquangaoweibuzhi“xiliejishu,gaijishujidadisuoduanlequanbugaowenzhengqiguandao,qinenggoudadaodeshejigongdianmeihaojinyibujiangdiwei249 ke/qianwashi,zheijiangshidangjinshijiezuixianjindeshuiping。

  “gaowenyalinjie”xiliejishu。

  jutongji, zhi2018niandi, huanlecaiguoxianzairengyouyue3.5yiqianwadexianyizhuangjirongliangweiyalinjiejizu,qizaiedinggongkuangxiadegongdianmeihaopubiangaoyu318gce/kwh。jingguoxieyi,youwaisan(shennengkeji)caiyongqi“gaowenyalinjie”xiliechuangxinjishu,fuzeweihuarunxuzhoudianchang320mwyalinjiejizuxiangmujinxinggaizao,gaixiangmuyu2019nian8yue10rigaizaowanchenghouyicixingtongguo168xiaoshimanfuheshiyunxing。huarunxuzhoudianchangzheicicaiyong“waisan(shennengkeji)“yanfade“gaowenyalinjie”xiliechuangxinjishugaizaoqixianyideyalinjiejizudeshijixiaoguo,biaoxianchuleyixia4getuchudetedian:

  “dafudujiangdigongdianmeihao”: caiyong“gaowenyalinjie”xiliechuangxinjishu,duiyuan320mwyalinjiejizu,qizhuzhengqihezairezhengqideyaliweichiyalinjiebubian,erzhuzhengqihezairezhengqiwendujuntigaodaochaochaolinjieshuipingde600ocdengji,zaifujiashangqitawaisandexiliechuangxinjishu,gaizaohou,gai#3haojizaiedinggongkuangxiadeshejigongdianmeihaoconggaizaoqiandechangguiyalinjieshuipingde318gce/kwh,jiangdizhigaizaohou287gce/kwhdechaochaolinjieshuiping,jiangfuda31gce/kwh。dadachaoguoleguojialiubuwei2014nianfabude“6nianxingdongjihua”yaoqiude300wanqianwadengjimeidianjizugaizaohoudegongdianmeihao310ke/qianwashidemubiaoyaoqiu。xuyaotebiezhichudeshi,gaijizudeqilunjiyizai2012nianjinxingguotongliubufengaizao,yinci,weijingguotongliugaizaoguodejizu,ruocaiyong“gaowenyalinjie”xiliechuangxinjishujinxinggaizao,qigongdianmeihaodexiajiangfuduhaihuidahenduo;

  “dafanweikekaodegaodulinghuoxingdiaofeng”: caiyong“gaowenyalinjie”xiliechuangxinjishu,chulenengshixiaolvdafudutishengwai,jizuhaishixianlezaizhiyouedingfuhe19%dechaodifuhexia,zhangqi、anquan、wending、gaoxiaohedipaifangdelinghuoyunxing,tiqian10nianshixianlekejibuheguojianengyuanjuguihuadezai2030nianranmeijizudadaode20%-100%fuhefanweilinghuoxingdiaojienengliyaoqiudemubiao,zheiduiyudianwangkegengduodixiaonakezaishengnengyuandianlijuyoujiqizhongyaodeyiyi;

  “gaizaojizukeyanshoujixu30niandeanquangaoxiaoyunxing”: caiyong“gaowenyalinjie”xiliechuangxinjishukeyidafuduyanzhangjizuyunxingshouming,zheishiyouyuzaiqilunjigaizaozhong,tongliubufenquanbugenghuanshengjibingjiazaibaoxiaojishu,yinciqilunjishoumingxiangdangyuxinjianjizudeqilunji,keyizaianquangaoxiaoyunxingchaoguo30nian。youyuguoluduiliushouremianjinxinglejiaodaguimodegaizao,yunxingshoumingkeyidadayanzhang,kepipeiqilunjishouming。ciwai, sandaguandaocaizhishengjigenghuan,xiangdangyuxinjianjizudesandaguandao。duiyufuji,zhixujinxingchangguiweihubaoyang,jikeyipipeizhujixuqiu。yinci,gaowenyalinjiegaizaohou,jizukeyongshoumingdeyidafuyanzhang,jubeijixuanquangaoxiaoyunxing30nianyishangdenengli;

  “gaoxingjiabi”: yong3.5yiyuandegaizaotouzi,duiyitai32wanqianwadeyalinjiejizu,caiyong“gaowenyalinjie”xiliechuangxinjishujinxinggaizao,huanlaiyitaixingnengxiangdangyuxianjinchaochaolinjiedejizu, juyoujigaodexingjiabi”,qitouzifeiyongyuewei1100yuan/qianwa,1100wanyuan/kebiaomei,qixingjiabiyuanyouyuqitayalinjiejizugaizaojishu。

  《中国电力报》: 根据上面您对外三(申能科技)的煤电创新技术在华润电力推广应用成果的介绍,对于今后进一步推广外三(申能科技)的创新技术有什么建议?

  毛健雄: 从上面介绍的外三(申能科技)的创新技术在华润电力推广应用所达到的成果看,欢乐彩认外三的创新技术具有普遍的实用性,从其已经推广应用的实际结果可以看出,这些技术可代表中国各种不同类型的煤电机组的提貭、降耗、增效、延寿和灵活性改造或新建机组的技术方向,这些成功的例子可以给欢乐彩以下的启示:

  waisan(shennengkeji)xiliechuangxinjishukeyiyongyuxianyidechaolinjiehechaochaolinjiejizudeshengjigaizao。waisandianchangbenshenhetongshandianchangchaochaolinjiejizudejienengjianpaigaizaodefanli,shuominglejishishixianjindexianyichaochaolinjiejizu,tongguojishuchuangxin,yerengranyouhendadegaizaotizhizengxiaokongjian;

  waisan(shennengkeji)xiliechuangxinjishukeyongyushejihuanlecaixiaolvhexingnengchaoyuechangguiercizairedeyicizairechaochaolinjiegongcheng。

  waisan(shennengkeji)xiliechuangxinjishukeyiyongyutupochangguishejideercizairejizucunzaidepingjingzhiyue,shejihuanlecaigenggaoxiaolvhexingnengdeercizairechaochaolinjiedianchanggongcheng,xianzaizhengzaijinxingdehuarunfuyangdianchangerqi66wanqianwaquangaoweiercizairechaochaolinjiegongcheng,qishejigongdianxiaolvyida49.33%,juliguojiaguihuade2030niangongdianxiaolv50%demubiaozhiyoubanbuzhiyao。fuyangxiangmujihuacaiyongdequantaowaisan(shennengkeji)chuangxinxiliejishu,shihuanlecaiguofazhanxinjianmeidianjizudejishujichuhefangxiang,fuyangxiangmuruguojiancheng,jianghuishihuanlecaiguojinhoujishinianmeidianxinjizufazhandeyigezuihaodeshifan;

  waisan(shennengkeji)xiliechuangxinjishukeyiyongyugaizaodapixianyiyalinjiejizu,jiangqigongdianmeihaodadaochaochaolinjieshuiping,bingdafudutigaogaizaohoudegaowenyalinjieqibaoguolujizuzai20%-100%fuhefanweineideanquan、wending、gaoxiaohelinghuoxing,congerkezhenzhengjiangyalinjielaojizushixian“tixiao、yanshou、dipai、linghuoxing” demubiao,weiyalinjiejizujiumaohuanxinyan,shixian“6nianxingdongjihua”tigonglejishushifanheyiju,shihuanlecaiguoyalinjiejizudadaoshenzhichaoguo“6nianxingdongjihua” mubiaoyaoqiudejijiatujing,shihuanlecaiguoxianyiyalinjiejizutizhigaizaodezhuyaofangxiang。

  yinci,weileyingduiqihoubianhuaerbixujiakuaifazhanditannengyuandetongshi,zaizhongguonengyuanziyuanyimeiweizhudetianranbingfutiaojianxia,youyuzaiyougezhongdianyuanzuchengdeduoyuanfazhandedianlixitongzhong,meidianrengranshijintianzhongguodianlidezhizhuheyacangshi,qizhejuzuqingzhongdedutezuoyong,huanlecairenwei,zainengyuanditanfazhandexingshixia,meidiandalitigaoxiaolv,jiangdimeihao,zheijiushizaixianjintiaojianxiameidiandeditanfazhan。youyuhuanlecaiguodexianyijizudemeidianzhuangjirongliangyichaoguo10yiqianwa,yinci,meidianjintiangaozhiliangfazhandezhongdianyinggaifangzaiduisuoyouxianyijizujinxingtizhishengjigaizao,tongguozhidingzhengce,duigezhongbutongleixingdemeidianjizutichugaizaomubiaoheqixianyaoqiu,yindizhiyi,tuidongcaiyongbutongdechuangxinjishu,jinxingtizhizengxiaohelinghuoxinggaizao,zheiyang,zhongguomeidianshixiangaozhiliangfazhan,shidayoukeweide。

责任编辑: 王萍   投稿邮箱: 网上投稿

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